How do we regulate water balance?
The urine passes from the kidneys to the bladder, where it is stored prior to being excreted from the body. The kidneys do more than just control the body's water balance. They also control: The excretion of urea and other metabolic waste.
Decreased water intake or increased exercise by decreasing urine output. To do this your body's nervous system has to communicate with the endocrine system. Water balance is regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) ADH regulates osmotic pressure of body fluids by causing the kidneys to increase water reabsorption.
- It's a hormone made by the hypothalamus in the brain and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It tells your kidneys how much water to conserve. ADH constantly regulates and balances the amount of water in your blood. Higher water concentration increases the volume and pressure of your blood.
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)—produced by the posterior pituitary gland —increases the amount of water reabsorbed in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. ADH causes decreased urine volume and decreased plasma osmolarity. A diuretic increases urine volume and increases plasma osmolarity.
- Because sodium stays in the body, and because sodium attracts water, water also stays in the body. This can boost blood volume and blood pressure. Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Potassium, like sodium, needs to be regulated by the body to maintain homeostasis.
As noted above, ADH plays a role in lowering osmolarity (reducing sodium concentration) by increasing water reabsorption in the kidneys, thus helping to dilute bodily fluids. The net effect on urine excretion is a decrease in the amount of urine excreted, with an increase in the osmolarity of the urine.
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone are hormones that tell your kidney to put water back in the blood. Both work in the collecting duct - ADH causes it to take up water, whereas aldosterone causes it to take up salt and, in turn, causes water to follow.
- ADH acts on receptors in the basolateral membrane of cells in the cortical and medullary collecting tubules and not on the apical (or luminal) membrane. The V2 receptors are in the basolateral membrane of the collecting tubule cells in the kidney.
- In the kidneys the receptors for ADH are found on the nephrons; the microscopic functional units of the kidneys. The parts of the nephron where the receptors are specifically located are on the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting duct (CD).
It's responsible for regulating the amount of water in the blood and is released from the pituitary gland based on signals from the hypothalamus, which detects the water levels of the blood. When too much water is in the blood, ADH release is decreased and the kidneys excrete more water and urine output is increased.
- Oxytocin is a hormone that acts on organs in the body (including the breast and uterus) and as a chemical messenger in the brain, controlling key aspects of the reproductive system, including childbirth and lactation, and aspects of human behaviour.
- Central diabetes insipidus is marked by a decrease in either the production of ADH by your hypothalamus or the release of ADH from your pituitary gland. Common symptoms include excessive urination, which is called polyuria, followed by extreme thirst, which is called polydipsia.
- In the body, vasopressin acts on the kidneys and blood vessels. Vasopressin helps prevent the loss of water from the body by reducing urine output and helping the kidneys reabsorb water in the body.
Updated: 21st November 2019