How do rocks deform?
When rocks deform in a ductile manner, instead of fracturing to form faults or joints, they may bend or fold, and the resulting structures are called folds. Folds result from compressional stresses or shear stresses acting over considerable time.
Stresses can be confining, compression, tension, or shear. Rocks under stress may show strain or deformation. Deformation can be elastic or plastic, or the rock may fracture. Rocks respond to stress differently under different conditions.
- When engineers build structures such as dams, roads and tunnels, they need to investigate the properties of the rocks beneath and around them. One of the key properties is the strength of the rocks. The height to which the ball bearing bounces back allows us to compare the relative strength of different rocks.
- In geology, the term "tension" refers to a stress which stretches rocks in two opposite directions. The rocks become longer in a lateral direction and thinner in a vertical direction. One important result of tensile stress is jointing in rocks.
- So your force causes strain, which further causes stress to develop in the material. That is why you plot the stresses on the ordinates (dependent parameter in the coordinate system) and the strains on the abscissa (independent parameter in the coordinate system).
elastic deformation: For small differential stresses, less than the yield strength, rock deforms like a spring. It changes shape by a very small amount in response to the stress, but the deformation is not permanent. brittle deformation: Near the Earth's surface rock behaves in its familiar brittle fashion.
- Syncline and anticline are terms used to describe folds based on the relative ages of folded rock layers. A syncline is a fold in which the youngest rocks occur in the core of a fold (i.e., closest to the fold axis), whereas the oldest rocks occur in the core of an anticline.
- Elastic/Plastic Deformation. When a sufficient load is applied to a metal or other structural material, it will cause the material to change shape. This change in shape is called deformation.
- compressional stress. The stress that squeezes something. It is the stress component perpendicular to a given surface, such as a fault plane, that results from forces applied perpendicular to the surface or from remote forces transmitted through the surrounding rock.
A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation. Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength. Breaking is often accompanied by a snapping sound.
- Earthquakes occur all the time all over the world, both along plate edges and along faults. Most earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates. The earth's crust (the outer layer of the planet) is made up of several pieces, called plates.
- Indonesia is in a very active seismic zone, also, but by virtue of its larger size than Japan, it has more total earthquakes. Which country has the most earthquakes per unit area? This would probably be Tonga, Fiji, or Indonesia since they are all in extremely active seismic areas along subduction zones.
- “It still affects me most days,” Dec. 26, 2004, Indian Ocean Tsunami survivor Dwayne Meadows said. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami is the deadliest tsunami in recorded history, and it caused an estimated $14 billion in damages at the time.
Updated: 2nd October 2019