The smooth endoplasmic reticulum, or smooth ER, is an organelle found in both animal cells and plant cells. An organelle is a sub-unit within a cell that has a specialized function. The main function of the smooth ER is to make cellular products like hormones and lipids.
Subsequently, one may also ask, where are membrane lipids synthesized?
The ER and Golgi apparatus together constitute the endomembrane compartment in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The endomembrane compartment is a major site of lipid synthesis, and the ER is where not only lipids are synthesized, but membrane-bound proteins and secretory proteins are also made.
How are lipids synthesized?
Membranes and their constituent proteins are assembled in the ER. This organelle contains the enzymes involved in lipid synthesis, and as lipids are manufactured in the ER, they are inserted into the organelle's own membranes. This happens in part because the lipids are too hydrophobic to dissolve into the cytoplasm.
Where is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum located?
Rough ER is found throughout the cell but the density is higher near the nucleus and the Golgi apparatus. Ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum are called 'membrane bound' and are responsible for the assembly of many proteins. This process is called translation.