Do all cells contain genetic material?
All cells, whether they are prokaryotic or eukaryotic, have some common features. The common features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are: DNA, the genetic material contained in one or more chromosomes and located in a nonmembrane bound nucleoid region in prokaryotes and a membrane-bound nucleus in eukaryotes.
Bacteria are prokaryotes . Hence they do not have a well defined nucleus. Their genetic material , which consists of circular and double-stranded DNA , floats freely in the cytoplasm and is not membrane-bound. The region in the cytoplasm , where the genetic material floats is known as nucleoid.
- Well, your genetic material known as deoxyribonucelic acid (DNA) is the reason. DNA is the hereditary material found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells (animal and plant) and the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells (bacteria) that determines the composition of the organism.
- Three Ways Bacteria Exchange DNA
- Transformation: the bacterium takes up of foreign DNA from its surroundings.
- Transduction: viruses carry bacterial genes from one bacterium to another.
- Conjugation: two temporarily joined bacteria directly transfer genetic material.
- Archaebacteria in many ways are similar to bacteria. The main differences are that their genes and the way they metabolize food are more closely related to eukaryotes. Some viruses have RNA instead of DNA as their genetic material, but RNA is much less stable and is easily destroyed.
All prokaryotic cells contain large quantities of genetic material in the form of DNA and RNA. Because prokaryotic cells, by definition, do not have a nucleus, a single large circular strand of DNA containing most of the genes needed for cell growth, survival, and reproduction is found in the cytoplasm.
- Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. However, unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have: a membrane-bound nucleus. numerous membrane-bound organelles (including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, and mitochondria)
- Prokaryotic cells (Figure below) are usually smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells. They do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. In prokaryotic cells, the DNA, or genetic material, forms a single large circle that coils up on itself. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus.
- A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms.
Updated: 18th November 2019