Of course, most of the signs and symptoms of IBD (which comprises Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) do involve the digestive tract. But extraintestinal manifestations of IBD may affect other organs and tissues, including the eyes, skin, and joints. EIMs may affect the skin, eyes, and joints.
There is currently no cure for ulcerative colitis. However, medication can improve symptoms and surgery can also help in many cases. People with ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of developing bowel cancer and should be monitored regularly, especially if the condition is severe or extensive.
Ulcerative colitis is a life-long condition that you have to manage, rather than a life-threatening illness. Still, it's a serious disease that can cause some dangerous complications, especially if you don't get the right treatment. Ulcerative colitis is one form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease that mainly affects the lining of the large intestine (colon). This autoimmune disease has a relapsing-remitting course, which means that periods of flare-ups are followed by periods of remission. Right now, there's no medical cure for UC.
Possible complications of ulcerative colitis include:
- Severe bleeding.
- A hole in the colon (perforated colon)
- Severe dehydration.
- Liver disease (rare)
- Bone loss (osteoporosis)
- Inflammation of your skin, joints and eyes.
- An increased risk of colon cancer.
- A rapidly swelling colon (toxic megacolon)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the large intestine, but it can also cause skin issues. Skin issues affect about 15 percent of all people with different types of IBD. Some of the skin rashes may come as a result of inflammation within your body.
Some people with a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) — Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis — as well as other gastrointestinal diseases, including celiac disease, may also have enteropathic arthritis. Symptoms include pain, stiffness, and inflammation of the joints.
How does Crohn's disease affect your body? Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease. That means that your body's immune system attacks and damages your bowel or gastrointestinal system. Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America: “About IBD.”
Episcleritis is a benign, self-limiting inflammatory disease affecting part of the eye called the episclera. The episclera is a thin layer of tissue that lies between the conjunctiva and the connective tissue layer that forms the white of the eye (sclera). In diffuse simple episcleritis, inflammation is generalized.
Most episodes last about two weeks; however, durations of three weeks to three months occur. Episcleritis is usually self-limiting with no permanent damage to the eye. Bouts of episcleritis are shortened with increased comfort with the prescription of steroid drops.
Inflammation of the episclera is usually mild and usually does not progress to scleritis. The cause is unknown, but certain diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, syphilis, herpes zoster, and tuberculosis have been associated with episcleritis. It is a common condition.
Both episcleritis and scleritis may be associated with a systemic disorder; that is, one affecting other organ systems in the body. Such disorders include autoimmune rheumatoid diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus), inflammatory bowel disease and tuberculosis.
Redness is the main symptom of episcleritis. Patients will sometimes also complain of irritation or even burning. Symptoms can start and stop abruptly, and can recur often. Frank pain is not present and the eye should not be tender to the touch nor be significantly sensitive to light.
Episcleritis refers to inflammation of your episclera, which is a clear layer on top of the white part of your eye, called the sclera. This inflammation causes your eye to look red and irritated. Episcleritis often looks like pink eye, but it doesn't cause discharge.
Episcleritis can make the entire eye red, or the redness can be from a wedge of swelling in just one section. The eye is usually sore to the touch, light sensitive, and a brow ache or headache often accompanies episcleritis, which is not contagious.
Artificial tears are useful for patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms. Patients with severe or prolonged episodes may require artificial tears and/or topical corticosteroids. Nodular episcleritis is more indolent and may require local corticosteroid drops or anti-inflammatory agents.
Medications used to treat scleritis include the following: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most often used in nodular anterior scleritis. Reducing inflammation also helps to ease scleritis pain. Corticosteroid pills (such as prednisone) may be used if NSAIDs don't reduce inflammation.
Simply using eye drops will not treat scleritis. In more aggressive cases of scleritis, chemotherapy (such as systemic immunosuppressive therapy with such drugs as cyclophosphamide or azathioprine) may be used to treat the disease. If not treated, scleritis can cause blindness.
In episcleritis, only the superficial tissue between the white of the eye (sclera) and the blood vessel-filled covering (conjunctiva) is inflamed. Trauma, chemical exposure, or postsurgical inflammation can also cause scleritis. No cause is found in some cases of scleritis.
With viral conjunctivitis, symptoms usually are worse beginning about three to five days after the eye infection begins. You may need eye drops containing decongestants or antihistamines to reduce irritation and swelling, sometimes for as long as one or two weeks.
The white part of the eye is a tough outer layer called the sclera. The sclera protects the inside of the eye and helps the eye keep its structure. The colored part of the eye is called the iris. This portion of the eye is what controls the amount of light that is let into the inner eye.