Usually, the early stages of bladder cancer cause bleeding but little or no pain or other symptoms. Blood in the urine does not always mean you have bladder cancer. More often it is caused by other things like an infection, benign (non-cancerous) tumors, stones in the kidney or bladder, or other benign kidney diseases.
Can a tumor in the bladder be benign?
A non-cancerous, or benign, tumour of the bladder is a growth that does not spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Non-cancerous tumours are not usually life-threatening. They are usually removed by surgery and do not usually come back (recur). The urothelium is the lining in the bladder and urinary tract.
Surgical options to treat bladder cancer include: Transurethral bladder tumor resection (TURBT). During TURBT, a surgeon inserts a cystoscope through the urethra into the bladder. The surgeon then removes the tumor using a tool with a small wire loop, a laser, or fulguration (high-energy electricity).
These cancers are nearly always cured with treatment. During long-term follow-up care, more superficial cancers are often found in the bladder or elsewhere in the urinary system. Although these new cancers do need to be treated, they rarely are deeply invasive or life threatening.
This is called lymphatic spread. Bladder cancer can spread this way. If it does, it usually first spreads to the lymph nodes in the pelvis, surrounding the bladder (called perivesicular lymph nodes). From there, it can spread to lymph nodes that are close to major blood vessels that run into the leg and pelvis.
For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of bladder cancer is 80%, it means that people who have that stage of cancer are, on average, about 80% as likely as people who don't have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed.
If a bladder polyp is cancerous, or it's large enough to cause symptoms or affect your bladder function, your doctor will remove it. One way to remove polyps is with a type of surgery called transurethral bladder resection (TURBT). The doctor first puts a cystoscope through your urethra into your bladder.
The following factors may raise a person's risk of developing bladder cancer: Tobacco use. The most common risk factor is cigarette smoking, although smoking cigars and pipes can also raise the risk of developing bladder cancer. Smokers are 4 to 7 times more likely to develop bladder cancer than nonsmokers.
Tests and procedures used to diagnose bladder cancer may include: Cystoscopy. To perform cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a small, narrow tube (cystoscope) through the urethra.
Late symptoms of bladder cancer include:
- loss of appetite.
- weight loss.
- change in bowel habits.
- pain in the rectum, anus, pelvis, flank (the side of the body) above the pubic bone or in bones.
- a lump in the pelvis.
Smokers are at least three times more likely to develop bladder cancer than non-smokers. Other risk factors include: bladder defects that are present from birth. undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men. Men, compared to women, are about three to four times more likely to get bladder cancer during their lifetime. White people may get diagnosed with bladder cancer almost twice as often as black folks. The average diagnosis is passed around 73 years of age.
The 3 main types of bladder cancer are:
- Urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma (or UCC) accounts for about 90% of all bladder cancers.
- Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cells develop in the bladder lining in response to irritation and inflammation.
A person can live without a bladder. In fact, many people do. If a surgeon has to remove the bladder to get rid of the cancer, he or she will create a new way for the body to eliminate urine. Before surgery to remove the bladder, the patient meets with the surgeon.
Tests for bladder cancer look for different substances or cancer cells in the urine. Urinalysis: One way to test for bladder cancer is to check for blood in the urine (called hematuria). Urine cytology does find some cancers, but it is not reliable enough to make a good screening test.
Rather than grow and divide in an orderly way, these cells develop mutations that cause them to grow out of control and not die. These abnormal cells form a tumor. Causes of bladder cancer include: Smoking and other tobacco use.
CT Scan – A Special CT scan will be ordered to assess for bladder cancer. This can detect large cancers in the bladder, but not small cancers. This scan is good at looking at the kidneys, ureters, and lymph nodes to see if there is any spread of your cancer or cancer in other locations.
Preventing hematuria means preventing the underlying causes:
- To prevent infections, drink plenty of water daily, urinate immediately after sexual intercourse, and practice good hygiene.
- To prevent stones, drink plenty of water and avoid excess salt and certain foods like spinach and rhubarb.
Urinary bladder is a cystic formed organ that consists of stratum mucosum, lamina muscularis, and serous membrane. Most of the tumors in the urinary bladder are of epithelial origin and various cyst-like lesions can occur intra- or extravesically; very few of them are derived from the bladder wall.
An ultrasound scan uses soundwaves to create a picture of your organs. It is used to show if cancer is present and how large it is. An ultrasound can't always find small tumours, so your doctor may do further tests. Your medical team will usually ask you to have a full bladder for the ultrasound.
Gross hematuria produces pink, red or cola-colored urine due to the presence of red blood cells. It takes little blood to produce red urine, and the bleeding usually isn't painful. Passing blood clots in your urine, however, can be painful. Bloody urine often occurs without other signs or symptoms.