Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. In addition, as these tumors grow, some cancer cells can break off and travel to distant places in the body through the blood or the lymph system and form new tumors far from the original tumor.
How does cancer affect the cells?
Cancer harms the body when altered cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors (except in the case of leukemia where cancer prohibits normal blood function by abnormal cell division in the blood stream).
5 Foods That Can Cause Cancer
- RELATED: This Is How Sugar May 'Fuel' Cancer Cells.
- Processed meats: Smoked or cured meats such as hot dogs, bacon, ham, sausages, and bacon are considered carcinogens, so limit your intake.
These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors. Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors. Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade, nearby tissues.
The most common places for cancer to develop are the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon and rectum. There are three main types of cell where cancer develops: Epithelial cells. Cancers that develop in this type of cell are called carcinomas.
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer develops when the body's normal control mechanism stops working. Old cells do not die and cells grow out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. These extra cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumor.
Your body is made up of 100 million million cells. Cancer can start when just one of them begins to grow and multiply too much. The result is a growth called a tumour. Benign tumours are localised growths - they only cause problems if they put pressure on nearby tissues, such as the brain.
Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens, and mutagens that cause cancers are known as carcinogens. Tobacco smoking is associated with many forms of cancer, and causes 90% of lung cancer. Similarly, prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with mesothelioma.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.
16% of Cancers Are Caused by Viruses or Bacteria. Strictly speaking, cancer is not contagious. But a fair number of cancers are clearly caused by viral or bacterial infections: lymphomas can be triggered by the Epstein-Barr virus, which also causes mononucleosis.
Sometimes the cancer cells form abnormal or distorted glands. Sometimes they form cell clumps that don't look like glands at all. Cancer cells grow into (invade) other tissues. And, unlike normal cells, cancer cells can metastasize (spread through blood vessels or lymph vessels) to distant parts of the body, too.
Inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, which is a disorder marked by an increased lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancers in women.
Cancer is unchecked cell growth. Mutations in genes can cause cancer by accelerating cell division rates or inhibiting normal controls on the system, such as cell cycle arrest or programmed cell death. As a mass of cancerous cells grows, it can develop into a tumor.
Most chronic cancers cannot be cured, but some can be controlled for months or even years. In fact, there's always a chance that cancer will go into remission. There are different kinds of remission.
Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. You may also have immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy.
Number staging systems usually use the TNM system to divide cancers into stages. Most types of cancer have 4 stages, numbered from 1 to 4. Often doctors write the stage down in Roman numerals. So you may see stage 4 written down as stage IV.
Invasiveness—Normal cells listen to signals from neighboring cells and stop growing when they encroach on nearby tissues (something called contact inhibition.) Cancer cells ignore these cells and invade nearby tissues. Benign (non-cancerous) tumors have a fibrous capsule.
Some behavioral and environmental triggers can cause changes in the body's cells that push them into a cancerous state. For example, cigarettes are known to increase the risk of lung cancer. Too much exposure to the sun can increase the risk of skin cancer.
Cancer is nearly always diagnosed by an expert who has looked at cell or tissue samples under a microscope. In some cases, tests done on the cells' proteins, DNA, and RNA can help tell doctors if there's cancer. The tissue sample is called the biopsy specimen.
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common and easiest-to-treat skin cancer. Because basal cell carcinoma spreads slowly, it occurs mostly in adults. Basal cell tumors can take on many forms, including a pearly white or waxy bump, often with visible blood vessels, on the ears, neck, or face.
There are more than 100 types of cancer, characterized by abnormal cell growth. There are many different causes, ranging from radiation to chemicals to viruses; an individual has varying degrees of control over exposure to cancer-causing agents.
Our Questions to Ask Your Doctor About Treatment may help.
- Surgery. When used to treat cancer, surgery is a procedure in which a surgeon removes cancer from your body.
- Radiation Therapy.
- Targeted Therapy.
- Hormone Therapy.
- Stem Cell Transplant.
- Precision Medicine.